Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Recent promo for Medici: Masters of Florence fron Netflix

The good folks on the Medici : Masters of Florence promotion team sent us a new trailer prior to the American debut of the new series from Netflix.

Medici: Masters of Florence is the new production from Frank Spotnitz, and co-written by film icon, Nicholas Meyer (The Seven Percent Solution, Time After Time, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn, The Day After, and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country) and stars Dustin Hoffman and Richard Madden (of Game of Thrones, Robb Stark fame).

The series was a resounding success last year when it debut in Italy, where the bulk of the series was filmed. This is worth looking into for anyone who enjoyed Mr. Spotnitz's work with Man In The High Castle for Amazon. The American debut was December 9th.

Wednesday, November 30, 2016


Where I live, or I should add nearby, there’s an old white building for years I assumed was a library. It’s right off Presidio Park drive in San Francisco. I learned a year and a half ago that it was the home of the Internet Archive.

Now, the Internet Archive has been a resource for all on-line internet media, including books, sites that have gone missing have been archived there. This is especially important for some of the valuable written content that has existed since the mid 90s on the Internet. While it is true that the internet features a great deal of misinformed dreck, the internet has also featured some great resources that are / were well researched, informed, insightful, and that broke the line between legitimate, old school journalism, and freed up a kind of citizen based journalism that was a two edged sword.

Some of that citizen journalism was well done, and responsible, and some of that citizen journalism was not, and that is really the fault of the individuals involved when they were not responsible for their work. Nevertheless, you’ve had people who worked quite hard, with long hours of thought, elbow grease, and ethics to offer their best for little payment, or no pay, and with the belief in the free exchange of ideas. There might have been excesses along the way, abuses, when it comes to file sharing, or breaches in ‘Fair use’ rules, or abuses with frivolous sound bite content that is driven by 140 characters.

There might have been Silicon Valley figures with Utopian dreams about using the internet in the ‘app age’ to solve the ills of services, and goods, thus creating new problems without fixing the displacement of the work force of those services. Few could have seen the downside to a Facebook or a Redditt many years before. There have been abuses indeed, but the many bad apples shouldn’t spoil the whole bunch, we have always seen excesses in every aspect of culture.

The folks behind the Internet Archive have announced, due to developments with the new President Elect, they are moving their operations from San Francisco to Canada, to protect their servers in light of a new administration that has indicated, during the campaign, a lack of support for Internet Neutrality, the elimination of the FCC, and raised questions about revising the meaning of the First Amendment. Now, as to if this is all just heated rhetoric that will lead to nothing is hard to say, but we are facing a seismic shift in our culture, in our politics that one should be vigilant with, Elections have consequences and this is more true when our culture could be facing a government that no one really knows what to expect. An Autocratic government? A Kleptocratic government? More of the same authoritarian government we saw in the early 2000s? All of the above, or none of the above?

We have supported, at The X-Files Lexicon, Internet Neutrality for a decade now for sound reasons. The belief that information is the coin of the realm, regardless as to if that information is entertainment based, news based, history based, or science based. The mechanics of explaining how Internet Neutrality works has been complicated, but the objective has remained that a consumer should not have to pay to play, while it’s understandable with on-line news outlets to pay a subscription fee, the system should not be rigged to force that situation in all matters, especially when it’s done for politically expedient reasons.

We should address the other ramifications related to The X-Files season 11 news. The comments from Gillian Anderson about nothing happening, and the added comments from Anne Simon, which suggest that the election outcome has affected FOX studios decision to not move forward with another short form season. This could have little to do with politics, but more about scheduling conflicts and how much various parties want to commit. If this set of circumstances had to do with knee jerk action to the political climate, it would be a waste to ignore such salient points as the high ratings of the first three episodes. It also runs counter to how Television networks operate, where they live and breath off of high ratings. I feel people shouldn’t draw certain conclusions yet.

Fact based truth should not be a causality of social or political movements, but they often seem to be the first causality in the struggle to uphold free speech.

We are living in cynical and faithless times, it’s true that trust in all institutions have collapsed, but that doesn’t have to be the case. This collapsing of trust was intentional, by design and by various parties.

This lack of faith in the realm of information, this blurring of legitimate information, and artificial information has extend into every area now.

When the line between the tiny sliver of legitimate global conspiracies has been blurred to mean everything is a conspiracy, it loses all meaning now.

When we are conditioned to accept what was once unacceptable, it has lost all meaning now.

When we abandon fact based truths, or data, then everything means nothing now.

This malaise is not just a symptom of America, but of the entire world now.  It does feel like there’s a global re-wiring at work in Europe, The UK, France, Italy, and Latin America, all to benefit the Eastern regions at the expense of everyone else.

This example with the relocation of the Internet Archive is one tiny piece of this new paradigm shift, the list is vast with other pieces of this puzzle.  But we might see further changes soon. One cannot predict the future, only pay attention to the clues.

Like the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in AD 642, we should take care to not repeat history.

Sunday, November 20, 2016

New XFL appearance on X-Cast about ep 3

The X-Files Lexicon webmaster appeared on Tony Black’s The X-Cast to talk about season two’s episode, ‘3’. Tony could not have been more gracious and some interesting points about “3” were raised, as Matt Allair has always felt it was a better episode than given credit for by fans. The podcast explains why.

Thursday, November 10, 2016

The Future of The X-Files Lexicon blog...

Hi, crazy and rough week for many.  I don’t know what the future of The X-Files Lexicon blog is going to be now. The good news is that we will continue publishing the great work of Chris Irish and his reviews of the IDW comics, and X-Files topic related articles.

Some of the past articles that I was writing, that initially built up the reputation of the blog as an alternative source of topics related, and somewhat unrelated to The X-Files is under review.

You see, there were certain articles that appealed to a certain audience, and the relationship with certain circles changed. With the personal views that are expressed, I feel the need to be real and honest about everything as I saw things. I just couldn’t post anything I didn’t believe in.

We’ll keep going, rest assured. But I feel I could use some input about what you want to see on the Blog at this point.

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Praying for time...

As of late, I have never seen so much discord on so many levels, and in so many areas, but I sensed it was coming a good number of years back, as evidenced with the Ophiuchus Code series. There’s a couple of key pieces I plan to run before the end of October, but sometimes the best thing is say is very little, hence…

This George Michael song from 1990 seems more prophetic now than ever, we have some things to figure out in the next few months.

It’s hard to love, there’s so much to hate
Hanging onto hope, when there is no hope to speak of
And the wounded skies above say it’s much too late
So maybe we should all be praying for time.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

The X-Files: Event Series - How do the extras measure up?

Review of the DVD extras on The X-Files: Event Series, Season 10

Now we are here, now we have arrived at not only having seen the new series episodes in Jan and Feb, but now having the release of the Blu Ray and DVD release of the Event Series, Season 10. The following is to not access the merit of the episodes, there’s plenty of time to do so, but to access how the extra’s content measures up. There has been a legacy with the previous media releases, from the VHS cassettes, onward to the DVD and the High Def Blu Ray releases, to this release. There’s much to have to measure up to for those who want to learn about every aspect of the series, and this was always going to be a tall order, but fortunately it seems to measure up well.

Let’s address the most pressing points first.

Deleted Scenes – There has been a lot of consternation by many fans over what felt like what was missing from aspects of the episodes, especially the two mythology episodes, there were fans who felt like some details were rushed, or glossed over, and considering the network time limits of what can air in the space of an hour, or more accurately 43 minutes, there’s only so much that can be done. The Deleted Scenes only cover two episodes, a sequence from “My Struggle” that features the old man’s daughter. We learn what happened to the old man, and just how much danger Mulder and his circle are facing. The other episode features en extended take on Mulder’s hoe down dance from “Babylon”, this isn’t really essential viewing, but features a few extra glimpses of ‘cowboy Skinner’, and the ‘cowboy lone gunmen’. It will depend on one’s feelings about the fan aspects of the sequence.

43:45 – The Making of a Struggle: This is an exhaustive breakdown of the development and production of “My Struggle”, including the event screenings at Comic Con, and Los Angeles. This much more comprehensive than I expected. How does it measure up to the documentaries that were featured on the prior DVD / Blu Ray, seasonal box set collections? Pretty well. What you get is a more interactive documentation of the production, with a greater sense of the play that occurred on the set. The title is in reference to the network requirement for broadcast length. When you consider that the original DVD sets started up in 2000, and offered a lot of after the fact, recollective segments about the prior seasons. What separates the new documentaries is the new ‘in-the-moment’ coverage from pre production, to shooting and crowd management, and post production. The production values for the interview segments are quite high. The comprehensive aspect also seems to be about demystifying the creative process. It’s hard to really say, nor presume, that the efforts of The X-Files Lexicon, or X-Files News to cover every aspect of the series had an influence on this comprehensive focus.

Season X – These long segments cover the rest of the series episodes, and offers more in depth background that led to FOX’s interest in producing more. These are structured longer than the ‘behind the series’ features that could be found on the original series DVD or Blu Rays. Once again, the production values for the interview segments are quite high. The menu segments are as follows “A 13 Year Commercial Break ,Getting The Band Back Together, Platonic Activity, Art Comes to Life, The Little-Uber Scullys, Man Bites Lizard, The Meta-Files, Homegrown Terror, Mulder’s Wild Ride, Signal To Noise, The Last Temptation of Mulder and Scully, Scully Likes Science, This Is The End.”

Gag Reel – There’s been a long tradition of X-Philes sharing the previous production crew Gag or Blooper reels on-line. The producers of the extras must of realized this to include this new Gag reel from Season 10. It reinforces just how relaxed the cast and crew looked during the bulk of the production from the summer of 2015.

Monsters of the Week - The Wildest and Scariest from the Original Series – There’s nine selections from each season and this is hilariously hosted by Kumail Nanjiani. Those selections include – “Squeeze, The Host, Pusher, Home, Folie A Deux, Field Trip, Orison, Roadrunners, Sunshine Days.” The choices seem to be Kumail’s personal view, he acknowledges the ton of episodes not highlighted. It’s a fun little segment.

The X-Files: Green Production – This acts as a short PSA about how the production was green conservation conscious during all aspects, from the offices, to the set construction, and props. Actually, A similar segment appeared on the “I Want To Believe” feature extras in 2008.

Grace – This is a short film by Karen Nielsen, the Script supervisor during the new season. The selection is apt as the story does have the flavor of an X-Files, or Millennium episode. A small percentage of people who worked on The X-Files were involved with this.

The audio commentaries hold up well, in comparison to the tradition of past commentaries. The Commentaries for “Founder’s Mutation” and “My Struggle II” are comprehensive. The commentary for “Mulder and Scully Meet The Were-Monster” is far more looser. The “Founder’s Mutation” commentary features James Wong and Chris Carter. The commentary for “My Struggle II” features Chris Carter and Producer / Director of Development at 1013 Gabe Rotter. The “Mulder and Scully Meet The Were-Monster” commentary is the most generous featuring both David Duchvony and Gillian Anderson, and Darin Morgan and Kumail Nanjiani, the humor is a lot of relaxed. I suspect the Duchvony and Anderson comments, and Morgan / Nanjiani comments were recorded separately.

The entire three disc package is generous, while it doesn’t include the kind of menu booklets that were found in the 2000-2002 DVD reissues, nor has the kind of inserts like the “Threads of the Mythology” foldout booklets, it does have some deep content, thanks to the documentaries from Julie Ng. As of this writing, word came back it just won a Saturn Award for best DVD / BD TV set. The extras are worth looking into.

Promotion images courtesy of FOX home entertainment.

Saturday, June 11, 2016

In memoriam 2016, part 2

(The following reflects the views of the webmaster and not the entire XFL staff.)

The previous piece ran so long, we wanted to continue with other important figures who passed on:

Honorable Mentions

Glenn Frey (November 1948 – January 2016)

Glenn Frey was the co-founder of The Eagles, one of the most vilified and yet beloved bands of the 70s. He sang lead vocals on "Take It Easy, Peaceful Easy Feeling, Tequila Sunrise, Already Gone, Lyin’ Eyes, New Kid In Town" and "Heartache Tonight". The Eagles started in 1970 as a backup unit for Linda Ronstadt. Born in Michigan, he became part of Detroit’s rock scene of the 1960s, and played on Bob Seger’s "Ramblin’ Gamblin’ Man" in 1968 before moving to Los Angeles in 1969. The Eagles were signed to Asylum Records in 1971, and released their first album in 1972, followed by Desperado in 1973, On The Border in 1974, One of These Nights in 1975, Hotel California in 1976, and The Long Run in 1979. The Eagles were never really the worst band; they were mostly guilty of producing impeccable tracks that were middle of the road to most critical tastes. Frey started his solo career in 1982 with No Fun Aloud with the single "The One You Love". In 1984 he followed it with The Allnighter, with the "Sexy Girl" single, and the bigger "Smuggler’s Blues", which inspired a Miami Vice episode he co-starred in. He wrote "The Heat Is On" for Beverly Hills Cop, and "You Belong To The City" for Miami Vice. He released three other solo records, 1988’s Soul Searchin’, 1992’s Strange Weather and 2012’s After Hours. The Eagles reformed in 1994, toured, and put out Hell Freezes Over, a mix of live tracks and studio cuts including "Get Over It", a tirade against political correctness. Their album Long Road Out of Eden was primarily released via their website in 2007. While Don Henley was the more celebrated and incisive writer of the two, and while Frey might not have been a groundbreaker, he did have the knack of crafting a good pop tune.

Sir George Martin (Jan 1923 – March 2016)

Almost every record producer wanted to emulate George Martin, but few have ever matched him. Sir George seemed to define what being a rock record producer meant and demonstrated it with true meaning, which was to draw the best performance out of an artist, whoever it was. The tag of being the ‘fifth Beatle’ had some merit, though many others, such as Stu Sutcliffe, Derek Taylor, Neil Aspinall and particularly Brian Epstein could lay claim to that title. In the studio he was sober, even-handed most of the time, and flexible. He didn’t discover The Beatles, but was open enough to see their potential to his great credit. As a child Martin developed an early interest and ability with music. Aged 17, in 1943, he joined the Fleet Air Aim of the Royal Navy and became an aerial observer and commissioned officer. Using his veterans’ grant, he attended the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1947 to 1950. In 1948 he married his wife Sheena Chisholm, whom he had two children with, and was hired at EMI in 1950. He married his second wife Judy in 1966, having two children with her also He started recording comedy albums with Peter Sellers and Spike Milligan and making classical recordings after becoming of head of Parlophone in 1955. Martin was approached through channels to consider signing The Beatles in February 1962. He found their Decca recording demos not very promising, but liked Lennon and McCartney’s vocals. He wasn’t initially impressed with their originals nor cover selections, but was more impressed with their personal charm; after Ringo Starr replaced Pete Best (at his suggestion), their original writing rapidly evolved at an astonishing rate, and once they had their first number one with "Please Please Me" they never looked back. Martin’s classical background and arrangement skills helped the band to broaden their palette from 1965 onwards. In 1979 Martin created Air Studios in the Caribbean city of Montserrat and countless artists such as Elton John, Eric Clapton, Dire Straits, The Police and Stevie Wonder recorded there. The studio closed in 1989 after much of the island was destroyed by Hurricane Hugo, but his UK studio, also called Air, is still maintained, and remains one of the largest scoring facilities for soundtracks.

After the Beatles breakup in 1970, Martin could have retired and rested on his laurels, but he carried on and produced countless bands and artists, working with America from 1974 to 1979, and recording two of Jeff Beck’s best instrumental albums Blow By Blow in 1975 and Wired in 1976. He also produced Mahavishnu Orchestra’s Apocalypse album. He produced heavier acts like U.F.O’s 1980 album No Place To Run, and Cheap Trick’s unexpectedly experimental All Shook Up in 1980. He supervised the music selections for the Beatles Anthology in 1994-1995. I have always argued that George Martin was more adept as an orchestral arranger and composer than he was given credit for. The orchestral score for Yellow Submarine (1968) has some hugely inventive moments. Martin did a second score when he worked with Paul McCartney on the theme for the James Bond film Live and Let Die in 1973, which he also wrote the score to alongside some nice embellishments to the Monty Norman theme. Martin was also involved with Elton John’s re-recording of "Candle In The Wind" (the biggest selling single of all time) in 1997 following the death of Princess Diana. He helmed a retirement album in 1998 called In My Life with various artists.

Paul Kantner (March 1941 – January 2016)

Let me start by adding that I have an indirect connection to Paul Kantner, and while his life may not have had a great personal impact, I recognized his importance to the field of rock n’ roll. At the end of the eighties and early nineties I attended Marin Community College around the time that China Kantner, his daughter with Grace Slick, was still attending classes there. Also, back when my mother was a manicurist, she once did Grace Slick’s nails. Kantner was a native of San Francisco, unlike many musician transplants who ended up moving there in the mid 60s. After his mother passed when he was eight, Kantner spent his childhood at a Catholic boarding school, and was an avid reader of science fiction. Once he got into music, he wanted to be a protest folk singer in the mould of Pete Seeger. When Marty Balin came across Paul at a folk gig, he invited Kantner to join his band Jefferson Airplane, and Kantner had a hand in bringing in guitarist Jorma Kaukonen in around 1965. During his time in Jefferson Airplane he wrote "The Ballad of You and Me and Pooneil, Watch Her Ride, Crown of Creation", and co-wrote with Balin "Volunteers". In 1970 Kantner recorded the science fiction themed album Blows Against The Empire under the banner of Paul Kantner and Jefferson Starship. Kantner and Grace had become a couple by then and their daughter China was born in 1971. After numerous personal changes, Balin reappeared in 1975 to give them a huge hit with "Miracles", the band changed course, Jefferson Starship were retooled with Mickey Thomas and guitarist/songwriter Craig Chaquico, and had a string of hits like "Jane, Find Your Way Back, Winds of Change, No Way Out" and "Layin’ It On The Line". They able to compete with Bay Area acts like Journey for a spell, while Kantner would continue to contribute his idiosyncratic songs. He left after 1984’s Nuclear Furniture and the band had to change their name to Jefferson Starship due to Kantner’s legal action but in 1989 Jefferson Airplane did a reunion album and tour. Kantner continued solo projects, and toured under the Jefferson Starship banner with a new circle of players. He helped define the social activism of the 60s, and sincerely held the belief that music could socially change things.

Keith Emerson (November 1944 – March 2016)

For some, Keith Emerson was a polarizing figure in the field of progressive rock. It all depended on if you felt virtuoso playing distanced the listener from the emotion of a rock arrangement or not. But little could be argued that Emerson was a groundbreaker in helping to change the evolution of the synthesizer from a strictly studio recording instrument to a working touring instrument and, like Jon Lord from Deep Purple, used stage dynamics and theatrics to excite the audience by not having the keyboard remain a static instrument. Emerson was born in Todmorden, Yorkshire, and grew up in Worthing, West Sussex. As a child, he didn’t own a record player, but used jazz sheet music from Dave Brubeck and George Shearing and learned jazz piano from books. While he studied Beethoven, he could also play Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis songs, which helped him to avoid getting bullied. After becoming adept on Hammond organ, he formed The Nice in 1967, before discovering the Moog synthesizer. He formed Emerson, Lake & Palmer in 1970, and pieces like "The Barbarian" and "Knife-Edge" were based on Bartok and Janacek pieces. The bulk of the "Tarkus" track on their second album was composed by Emerson. The live EP Pictures at an Exhibition was based on a Mussorgsky suite. The band’s third album Trilogy featured such Emerson compositions as "Fugue" and "Abaddon’s Bolero". Brain Salad Surgery in 1973 was their most successful album with Emerson compositions such as "Karn Evil 9: Second Impression". A triple live album was released in 1974. Some classical scholars complained that he didn’t write his own classical compositions so he answered them on the 1976 double Works: Volume 1 album, with a piano concerto; that album also featured their rock arrangement of Aaron Copeland’s "Fanfare for the Common Man". The more condensed Works, Volume 2 in 1977 featured such compositions as "Barrelhouse Shake Down" but after Love Beach in 1978 the band fell apart. In the eighties Emerson recorded several solo projects and soundtracks. He formed the brief Emerson, Lake & Powell in 1985. At the start of the 1990s, the band saw a resurgence of interest and the album Black Moon was released in 1992 with cuts such as "Changing States, Close to Home" and Prokofiev’s "Dance of the Knights" from 'Romeo & Juliet', followed by In The Hot Seat in 1994. As the 2000s progressed, Keith formed his own band and collaborated with classical figures like Takashi Yoshimatsu, with classical players like Jeffrey Biegel performing "Piano Concerto 1". Emerson also enjoyed flying and secured his pilot’s license in 1972. Health problems had started to limit his abilities and, suffering from depression, he took his own life in Santa Monica. He will be remembered for exposing many rock fans to classical pieces they might not have held an interest in. A tribute concert is pending.

Alan Rickman (February 1946 – January 2016)

Alan Rickman became one of the most respected stage and screen actors of his generation, due to his distinct voice and sardonic persona. He could play a charming heavy, but he was a much more layered actor than that. In film franchises populated with impeccable castings, his work on the Harry Potter films alone as the teacher nemesis Severus Snape might have been one of the most perfect possible. Born in Acton, London to a working class family, his father Bernard died when he was eight. As a youth he was adept at calligraphy and watercolors, attended the Chelsea College of Art and Design, and then the Royal College of Art. He considered becoming a graphic designer, but auditioned for and then attended the legendary acting school RADA (Royal Academy of Dramatic Art) from 1972 to 1974. He worked with British repertory and experimental theatre, securing his first theatre lead role in 1985 with "Les Liaisons Dangereuses". He appeared in several BBC Shakespeare productions before he got his first notable attention for playing Hans Gruber in Die Hard (1988). He followed this by playing the Sheriff of Nottingham in Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991). He also appeared in Sense and Sensibility (1995) and Michael Collins (1996). He appeared in Kevin Smith’s Dogma in 1999 playing a representative of God as well as appearing in the fan-beloved Galaxy Quest as Alexander Dane/Dr Lazarus. He started playing Severus Snape in Harry Potter & The Philosopher’s Stone (2001) and would continue to do so for seven more films. In 2005 he played the voice of Marvin, the Manic Depressive Robot in Hitchhiker’s Guide To The Galaxy. In 2007, He appeared in Tim Burton’s version of the musical Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street as Judge Turin. He soon followed this by playing the voice of Absolem in Burton’s Alice In Wonderland (2010). He appeared in Lee Daniels’ The Butler in 2013, playing, somewhat bizarrely, but as ever brilliantly, Ronald Reagan. His final two films were Eye in the Sky and Alice Through The Looking Glass; both released this year. There’s a story that when Rickman first played the role of Severus Snape, before the third film, J.K. Rowling took him aside and shared the secret of Snape’s relationship to Lily Potter. Later, Snape’s heroic dedication was poignant when the character died in film eight, The Deathly Hallows Part 2. Rickman was able to embody great understanding in even the most unlikable character. His passing was overlooked somewhat, coming only four days after Bowie, but he will be hugely missed.

And lastly....

Muhammad Ali (January 1942- June 2016)

For most of my life, Muhammad Ali has been an icon that I recognized, but also someone who was in decline due to Parkinson’s Disease since 1984. Due to that situation, he hasn’t had much of a personal impact on me, but it has been hard to ignore that fact he has been one of the most celebrated and significant sports figures of the 20th, and as much as I have never been much of a follower of Boxing, he was to be admired. There was a lot to admire about the man, he held an honesty that was rare, his verbal skills, and verbal jousting could not be matched by any other athlete. He was born Cassius Clay and raised in Lousiville, Kentucky. At 18, he won the Light Heavyweight gold metal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome.  At 22, He beat Sonny Liston in the 1964 upset of WBA and WBC heavyweight championships, he had already converted to Islam by the time he changed his name to Muhammad Ali during that year. But he would remain an inspiring and polarizing figure. He won significant titles in 1964, 1974, and 1978. He was the only boxer to be named in The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year five times, and Sportsman of the Century by Sports Illustrated. By 1966, he triggered controversy by refusing to be conscripted in the U.S. Military, due to his religious beliefs and his opposition to the Viet Nam war. Nevertheless, he was given the nickname of “The Greatest”. His trash talking, a free style rhyme scheme, and spoken word poetry was so musical, he worked in acting, and music as well, and his style anticipated elements of Hip Hop and Rap. As a Muslim, he initially was affiliated with Elijah Muhammad’s Nation of Islam (NIO), but disavowed it and converted to Sunni Islam, and devoted his life to religious and charitable work after he retired in 1981. His conscientious objector stance made him a counterculture icon with the 60s youth. Even some of Ali’s fights would inspire Sylvester Stallone to write Rocky. He is ranked alongside Joe Louis as the top all time greatest Boxer. But for many, it was his humanity in later years, and generous nature, that made him all the more a marvel, he will be missed.

Special thanks to Liz Tray for editorial assistance.